Volume 3, Issue 1 (June 2021)

Decline of Static Water Level in Quetta Sub-basin, Balochistan, Pakistan

Hameed Ullah , Akhtar Muhammad Kassi , Syed Mobasher Aftab , Muhammad Zahir , Nisar Ahmed

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2021, 3 (1), 1-16.
First Published: 30 June 2021


Background: Quetta is the most populated city of Balochistan, situated in a valley, called Quetta Sub-basin, apart of the Pishin Sub-basin, situated in northern part of the Kirthar Belt, comprising formations of Lower Jurassic through Holocene age. The Baleli River, along with its ephemeral streams, flows generally northwards, drains out of the Quetta Sub-basin near Baleli and joins the Pishin Sub-basin. It comprises two types of aquifers; 1) Alluvial aquifer, comprising horizontally-lying Quaternary alluvial succession, composed of siltstone, mudstone, sandstone and conglomerate, having primary porosity; 2) Limestone aquifer, composed mostly of Jurassic limestone, having secondary porosity. Decline of water level is detected in Sub-basin, which needs proper attention by the concerned authorities.

Objectives: The main objective was to estimate decline in the static water level in the alluvial and limestone aquifers of the Quetta Sub-basin.

Methods: Out of 430 tube wells of Quetta Water and Sanitation Authority (Q- WASA), 40 were randomly selected for monitoring for a period from April 2019 to March 2020. We selected 9 tube wells from the Limestone and 31 from the Alluvial aquifer. Decline in static water levels was estimated by taking average static water levels of both aquifers and estimating decline through formula of well-level data method. Water levels were measured by Sonic Water Level Meter and Water Level Meter Model-102 Manual.

Results: The findings show that a decline of the static water level was detected both in Limestone and Alluvial aquifers, during the period from April 2019 to March 2020, which is estimated as 0.2 m in the Limestone aquifer, and 0.99 m in the Alluvial aquifer.

Conclusions: Our results confirm that decline of the static water level dangerously continues and drastic steps are needed regarding groundwater recharge and appropriate management, in order to cope with the critical situation of water shortages in Quetta.

Computing Spatio-temporal variations in land surface temperature: A case study of Tehsil Murree, Pakistan

Naqia Gull, Muhammad Adeel, Liaqat Ali Waseem, Dostdar Hussain , Nasir Abbas, Adnan Elahi, Zawwar Hussain, Bulbul Jan, Muhammad Nasar-U-Minallah, Syed Ali Asad Naqvi

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2021, 3 (1), 17-30.
First Published: 30 Jun 2021


Background: Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a significant factor for surface processes. Mountain is critical for global energy and mass balance. Deviations of topographic properties of the land surface are causative factors of LST variations.

Objectives: In this study, the spatio-temporal variations in LST are investigated according to changes in elevation, slope, vegetation (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index – NDVI), rainfall, and snowfall (Normalized Difference Snow Index – NDSI). Tehsil Murree, Punjab was chosen as a case study.

Methods: Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Images of Landsat 8, Sentinel-2A, and MODIS for each month are used to calculate mean seasonal LST for 2017. The slope and elevation of the study area are extracted from DEM while MODIS is used to compute LST. Sentinel-2 images are used to calculate NDVI, and rainfall is collected from PERSIANN-CCS moreover Landsat-8 is used to calculate NDSI. All independent parameters are correlated with dependent-parameter by using linear regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR).

Results: Both models reveal that elevation is the most significantly controlling the distribution of LST. Other variables also influence LST; e.g., rainfall and vegetation (NDVI – third significant influencer) while using linear regression. The vegetation (NDVI) and rainfall (rainfall – last in rank) affect the LST when evaluated via the GWR model. Slope and NDSI in linear regression and GWR also affect the LST respectively. In general, the minimum and maximum temperatures in summer, monsoon, and winter seasons remained 24oC and 36oC (summer), 20oC and 33oC (monsoon), and 14oC and 23oC (winter), respectively. The mean temperatures remained 30oC, 26.5oC, and 18.5oC in summer, monsoon, and winter, respectively.

Conclusions: This study might be helpful to understand the most significant factors affecting LST and to estimate the water stress, flood, and snowline as well to understand the recent trends of global warming in correlation with the seasonal profile in hilly areas.

Factors Affecting Employee Retention in Pharmaceutical Sector in Pakistan

Muhammad Azeem Qureshi, Junaid Ansari , Masood Hassan and Abdul Rasheed

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2021, 3 (1), 31-48..
First Published: 30 Jun 2021


Background: In this advanced and digital era, employers and organizations are reluctant to retain their skilled and high performing employees due to the advancements in technology. Less people can perform the work of several employees with the help of technology.

Objectives: This study explains that various factors are involved when employees leave organizations.

Methods: Convenience sampling technique was used in this research and survey was conducted with the employees of pharmaceutical sector. PLS SEM approach was used to test the hypotheses. Data was collected from 200 respondents, out of which 192 were considered valid responses.

Results: The results show that Career Opportunities (β= 0.395, p < 0.05), Compensation (β= 0.312, p < 0.05), Organizational Commitment (β= -0.144, p < 0.05), and Work Environment (β=, p< 0.05) significantly affect the Motivation of the employees (i.e., p < 0.05). Moreover, motivation of the employees (β= 0.759, p < 0.05) significantly affects Employee Satisfaction that eventually affect employee retention (β= 0.164, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: One of the top reasons of employees leaving companies is their relationship with their supervisor or managers. Proper communication with managers is the key to build good bond. On the other hand, managers should suggest ways to improve. This research is limited to respondents from pharmaceutical industry and does not comply to every industry. Further it has been assumed that all the respondents gave accurate responses and they know well about their organizations.

Foreign Debt Dynamics and Economic Growth: Evidence from Pakistan

Sikandar Sikandar, Said Muhammad, Imran Khan, Bilal and Zahoor Ul Haq

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2021, 3 (1), 31-58.
First Published: 30 Jun 2021


Background: Foreign debt plays an important role in the economic development of a country like Pakistan.

Objectives: The paper has explored the relationship between exports, public debts, external debts, and the economic growth of Pakistan.

Methods: This study has adopted a time series methodology for the data analysis. Data range from 1985 to 2017. Thirty-two observations were used for each variable. The required data for the time series vectors have been collected from official websites of State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), International Monetary Fund (IMF), and World Bank Indicators (WBI). Augmented Dicky Fuller (ADF) test for stationarity of the data and co-integration model has been used for the relationship among the variables.

Results: The findings of the ADF test argued that the series has unit root at a level while they are having stationary nature at first difference. The finding of the co- integration model shows that exports, public debts, and external debts are having a long-run relationship with GDP/economic growth.

Conclusions: The study recommends that the policymakers should try to stabilize the current so that they might get the source for the price stability. The government should support the local producers so that they can compete in the market and provide low prices products to the consumers.

Monitoring the Urban Areas in Urban Heat Island (UHI) and Modeling the Probable Locations for Urban Expansion: The Case Review of Karachi

Anam Sabah, Sheeba Afsar

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2021, 3 (1), 59-79.
First Published: 30 Jun 2021


Background: Globally, urban heat island (UHI) is a common phenomenon which shows high temperature difference between urban and rural areas. The temperature difference is known to be caused by massive densely populated cities as related to rural zones.

Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to analyze UHI and modeling for Karachi. The research of the objectives sub-divided to develop a digital elevation model, slope, population density, built-up land, impervious surface and water, land surface temperature, vegetation cover, land surface temperature, soil moisture index, water body and land use/land cover. These parameters helped to extract the overall urban expansion model.

Methods: The methodology uses RS/GIS techniques and data of Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS and SRTM (DEM) satellite images. Similarly, ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 and ArcGIS 10.3.1 softwares were used for data analysis.

Results: The results show that Urban Heat Island (UHI) is growing rapidly in the city, particularly with increasing settlements. This study also shows urban expansion potential of Karachi city.

Conclusions: The results can help in developing strategies for future urban expansion and growth of Karachi, and potential options for decreasing UHI. The results concluded that the UHI cannot be decreased without taking effective decisions and proper implementation keeping in view the rapidly increasing population.The results can help in developing strategies for future urban expansion and growth of Karachi, and potential options for decreasing UHI. The results concluded that the UHI cannot be decreased without taking effective decisions and proper implementation keeping in view the rapidly increasing population.

       Journal of Geography and Social Sciences