Volume1, Issue 1 (December 2019)

Farmers’ coping and adaptive strategies towards drought in Pishin District, Balochistan

Muhammad Ashraf

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 1-16.
First Published: 31 December 2019


Background: Balochistan is prone to drought and has been impacted severely during 1998-2002. The people are engaged in orchard and livestock farming activities for earning their livelihoods.
Objectives: The main aim of this paper is to understand farmers’ coping and adaptive mechanism towards drought hazard.
Methods: The study is primarily based on primary data collection with a structured questionnaire from 215 households. Primary data was processed and statistically analyzed using descriptive as well as inferential statistics in order to assess coping and adaptive strategies being practiced by the farmers.
Results: The study results demonstrate that during recent long dry period, farmers have shown considerable strength in handling adverse effect of drought on their agricultural practices. A number of various adaptation initiatives have been employed at both on-farm and off-farm utilizing their indigenous methods under the regional conditions to minimize their exposure to drought hazards. These techniques involve crop diversification and mixed cropping, water management that include high span of watering and decreased in area; digging tube wells; water channel constructions/cemented pond for water storage; buying water; use pipe and drip/bubbler system for watering; divides the garden and use more soil around the tree; extra pruning of trees branches; and cutting down some trees for purpose of raising survival of fruit bearing trees; agricultural inputs adjustments, seeking off-farm employment, assets depletion, consumption smoothing, borrowing, and migrating to other places for alternative sources of income.
Conclusions: This study implies for specific policy and practice oriented solutions in order to cope with and adapt in drought situation.
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An empirical analysis of education, earning and household expenditure financing: the case of Swabi District

Waseem Sajjad, Shahab E. Saqib, Mazhar Ali and Motawali Khan

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 17-29.
First Published: 31 December 2019


Background: Education is considered as the most important tool to boost economic growth and human development. It has been established in the literature that higher level of education leads to higher development levels.
Objectives: The main objective of our research is to investigate the Mincer and Becker earning function. This function is the study of the effects of investment in schooling and on-the-job training on the level, pattern, and interpersonal distribution of life cycle earnings associated with the pioneering work on human capital. Therefore, this theatrical function is empirically tested in the context of Swabi District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Methods: A cross-sectional design was adopted to conduct this study. A sample of 96 individuals were interviewed through a standardized questionnaire from Razzer Tehsil, Swabi District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to specify the sample size. Simple and multiple regression models were used to explore the association between respondents’ income (dependent variable) and explanatory variables (education, experience and skill).
Results: Findings shows that all the econometrics models were good fit. For instance R2=0.66 for education, 0.72 for experience, 0.82 for kills and 0.62 for overall model. It implies that the variations in the dependent variable (earnings) were significantly explained by independent variables. Education (β= 3886.95, pvalue= 0.005), experience (β= 1181.987, p-value= 0.001) and skill (β= 6681.767, pvalue= 0.096) were significantly affecting income of individuals in separate models. However, skill was noted insignificant in the multiple-regression model.
Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that education, experience and skill are very important determinants of individuals’ income. The federal government should ensure universal access to education. The local government may focus on technical education to produce skilled labor or trained and qualified human resource.
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Gender differences in client satisfaction and its relationship with utilization of primary health care services in Pakistan

Sanaullah Panezai, Mokbul Morshed Ahmed and Shahab E Saqib

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 30-43.
First Published: 31 December 2019


Background: Assessing client satisfaction with services is of prime importance for policymakers and health care managers of the countries with low utilization of primary health care (PHC) services.
Objectives: This study explores gender differences in client satisfaction with PHC services, and association of client satisfaction with the utilization of PHC services at basic health unit (Ahmed et al.) level in Balochistan province, Pakistan.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 302 respondents within the service areas of selected 10 BHUs. The respondents were selected through simple random sampling. Weighted average index, t-tests and multiple regression analyses were used separately for women and men to investigate the differences in effects on their satisfaction levels on utilization of PHC services.
Results: The findings revealed that both men and women were not fully satisfied with the PHC services provided by the BHUs. They were mainly dissatisfied with the availability of medicines for chronic diseases, laboratory services, reproductive care and health education and quality of care. Gender differences were also found in the satisfaction with the convenience of BHU locations, distance to BHUs and services hours. These findings confirm that primary health care services are indeed poorly organized at BHUs.
Conclusions: These findings revealed shortcomings in the performance of primary health system at BHUs level, particularly in Balochistan province Pakistan. Policymakers and health care managers are suggested to revamp the existing service delivery strategies in order to make them more gender-responsive so that it could meet the expectations and PHC needs of both men and women.
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Drought perceptions and coping strategies of drought-prone rural households: A case study of Nushki District, Balochistan

Tehmoor Rehman, Sanaullah Panezai, Syed Ainuddin

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 44-56.
First Published: 31 December 2019


Background: Drought affects every sector of life and repetitive droughts in Balochistan have severally affected livelihoods of people particularly of rural households.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to explore the perceptions of drought and households’ coping strategies in rural areas Nushki District of Balochistan province.
Methods: For this cross-sectional study, the primary data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire from 198 respondents at four union councils of Nushki District. Respondents were selected through simple random sampling. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis, whereas for analyzing qualitative data, content analysis technique was used.
Results: The findings of this study show that lack of rainfall and drying of karezes and water sources were important perceptions of respondents for the incidence of drought. No or less rainfall was perceived to be the arrival of drought in the study area. Furthermore, selling of household assets, low food consumption, seeking alternate sources of income, out migration from the drought prone area were the prominent drought coping strategies of households at local level. Contrary to the literature, diversification in cropping pattern and planting practices were not adopted as coping strategies by rural households at Nushki District.
Conclusions: Nushki District is one of the most affected and drought prone area where occurrence of drought is regular. Mismanagement of water, migration from the rain-fed areas and lack of skills were serious issues. Therefore, government organizations and NGOs should conduct skill development programs for the rural households and farmers should be encouraged to grow drought resistant crops.
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Exploring juveniles’ delinquent behavior and associated factors: a cross-country comparison of Pakistan and Thailand

Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah Panezai, Aijaz Ali Wassan, and  Shahab E Saqib

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 57-71.
First Published: 31 December 2019


Objectives: This study aimed at exploring juveniles’ delinquent behavior and the associated factors in Pakistan and Thailand.
Methods: Quantitative research techniques were used for gathering and analysis of data related to juvenile delinquency. Primary data were collected from juvenile delinquents protection and rehabilitation centers at Bangkok and Karachi through interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 174 respondents were selected for this study through, simple random sampling. The statistical tests: Chi-square test, Pearson correlation, and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regressions were used for analysis.
Results: The results showed significant differences in juveniles’ delinquent behaviors in Pakistan and Thailand. Among Pakistani juveniles, smoking cigarettes, using drugs, damaging property and stealing money from family, whereas, smoking cigarettes, having sexual relations, skipping classes and gang fights were the leading delinquent behaviors among Thai juveniles. For Pakistani juveniles, defection from school, self-control, drug use, lack of daily activities schedule and peer influence were significant factors of delinquency. For Thai juveniles, delinquent behavior was significantly influenced by self-control, family type, lack of daily activities schedule and character of friends.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that socio-economic and environmental factors drive the patterns and causes of delinquency, therefore, they may be given importance in combating delinquency. Policymakers, law enforcement agencies and parents are suggested to adopt the context-specific strategies for reducing delinquency among juveniles keeping in view the local socio-economic and cultural perspectives. Policymakers should take serious initiatives to control school dropouts and drug use among juveniles.
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