Volume 2, Issue 2 (December 2020)

Comparative analysis of selected biomass cook stoves’ efficiency in Minna Metropolis, Nigeria

Samaila Alhassan Satil, and Auwal Muhammad Abdulrahman

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2 (2), 93-109.
First Published: 31 Dec 2020


Background: Fuel use is a measure of how efficiently the stove is able to transfer heat into the pot, which is expected to vary among the cook stoves because heat transfer efficiency seems to be predominantly dependent on the geometry of the stove and how closely the hot gases pass around the bottom and sides of the pot.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the efficiency of biomass energy cook stoves.

Methods: This study carried out a Comparative Analysis of Fuel wood efficiency of four biomass cook stoves in Minna Metropolis. The Save80, the single-hole improved, the local Metal charcoal, and the Three Stone Open Fire (TSF) cook stoves. Copies of Questionnaire were administered to households, and efficiency test was carried out using the Water Boiling Test (WBT). The metrics determined were Time to boil, Thermal efficiency, Burn Rate, Specific Fuel Consumption and the Percentage fuel savings.

Results: Household’s size and income were found to be significant factors that influence the type of cook stoves, whereas occupation and educational attainment played no significant role. The Save 80 cook stove took the least time of 23 minutes, while in terms of Thermal Efficiency, it exhibited the highest efficiency of 34%. The Burn rate recorded for the cook stoves were 12g/min, 55g/min, 35g/min and 144g/min for the Save 80, single–hole improved cook stove, Local metal charcoal cook stove and the three stone fire respectively. Save 80 had the least Specific fuel consumption and highest percentage of fuel savings of 55g/liter and 65% respectively. It was observed that the Time to boil, Burn Rate and Specific Fuel consumption decreases with improved technology of the cook stoves.

Conclusions: The Fuel wood efficient cook stoves have the potentials of reducing deforestation thereby mitigating climate change since lesser trees will be cut down for fuel.

Assessment of drought occurrences in Zhob District using Standardized Precipitation Index from 1981-2018

Shaista Khan, Mohammad Ashraf and Sanaullah Khan

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2 (2), 110-121.
First Published: 31 Dec 2020


Background: It is valuable for the policy makers to configure and assess the severity of drought in a particular area having arid climate, remote rural settlements and history of prolonged drought spells.

Objective: This study identifies and assesses the onset and extent of drought in the Zhob district by studying its spatio-temporal pattern using geospatial techniques.

Methods: In a longitudinal timeframe study (1981-2018), the precipitation data was collected from two rain gauge stations across Zhob district to assess the precipitation trends and calculate Standardized Precipitation Index values at multiple timescales. The values were then projected spatially as well as temporally to study the subsequent patterns and spatio-temporal extent of drought.

Results: The findings revealed that over the past 38 years, the Zhob district has experienced waves of dry and wet spells out of which the two prolonged drought spells were identified as 1998-2002 and 2015-2018. Both the periods differentiate in pattern and extent of spread; however detailed study of the later drought period was carried out to configure the differences in category and extent of the drought when compared on multiple timescales.

Conclusions: The spatio-temporal drought trends of past 38 years in the study area revealed how differently the drought expands over an area when assessed on various timescales. The precipitation anomaly when studied in conjunction with frequency of drought recurrence in the study area, revealed patterns indicating onset and other characteristics of drought. Such indications if rightly pointed out by the government agencies would help farmers and local populace to timely ascertain the approaching drought.

The family network support and disparity among rural-urban women informal entrepreneurs: empirical evidences from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

Said Muhammad, Kong Ximei , Shahab E. Saqib , Zahoor Ul Haq , Nisar Muhammad and, Sikandar

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2 (2), 122-132.
First Published: 31 Dec 2020


Background: Families and businesses have been separated from one another, but are intertwined in the case of women entrepreneurship. Women’s participation in economic and business activities has enhanced the employment ratio as well as boosting up the living standard by supporting their families financially. However, development has been always unequal.

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the rural-urban disparity among women home-based entrepreneurs in Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Methods: Data were obtained through a questionnaire in the rural-urban location from 504 participants who were engaged in informal home businesses. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were performed to test the association among variables.

Results: The results showed that significant disparity in the rural-urban location was found in the products offered, family’s financial status, family’s network support in finance and sales, and markets.

Conclusions: These women entrepreneurs should expand their business network to reduce their dependency on their family for support which can put a bar on their decision making. To empower women and reducing the rural-urban inequality gap, the government should provide financial support for the expansion of these entrepreneurial activities.

Assessing school safety against natural and human-made hazards: A case study of Gilgit city, Pakistan

Awais Ali Khan, Irfan Ahmad Rana, and Fawad Ahmed Najam

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2 (2), 133-147.
First Published: 31 Dec 2020


Background: School-going children belong to a vulnerable group of society. Natural and human-made hazards pose a great threat to school-children. This calls for making schools resilient against external threats. Therefore, it is imperative to assess school safety that reflects ground realities, and so that appropriate preparedness measures can be taken. Despite being prone to natural and human- made hazards, limited studies are available on school safety in developing countries, especially Pakistan.

Objectives: This study aims to assess current preparedness levels of schools in Gilgit, Pakistan, and identify institutional challenges for effective disaster risk reduction.

Methods: An emergency preparedness checklist was developed through a rigorous literature review. Indicators were classified into building and construction, planning and design, and awareness and supply component. Eleven high schools were surveyed and evaluated based on the checklist. 18 key informant interviews from school principals and government officials were conducted to identify challenges faced in ensuring school emergency preparedness. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were employed to determine the level of preparedness and institutional challenges, respectively.

Results: Results have shown that school emergency preparedness is inadequate. Proper building design and construction is lacking. School administrations are unaware of the Pakistan School Safety Framework. Limited information is posted in schools which can cause problems in the safe evacuation of students. Moreover, life-saving and rescue equipment is not available in the surveyed schools.

Conclusions: This study has proposed a comprehensive safety checklist, customized for assessing emergency preparedness of schools. Using the proposed checklist, emergency preparedness can be evaluated for different tiers of schools. The proposed checklist can be used in streamlining the Pakistan School Safety framework and related policies.

Hydrogeophysical investigation for groundwater potential through Electrical Resistivity Survey in Islamabad, Pakistan

Zeeshan Ahmed, Mahee Tanweer Ansari, Muhammad Zahir, Urooj Shakir , Muhammad Subhan

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2 (2), 147-163.
First Published: 31 Dec 2020


Background: The hydrological cycle has been disturbed because of global climate change. The rising global ocean level due to melting of ice with substantial increment in temperature led to climate warming. These circumstances have a negative influence on water resources, especially groundwater. The groundwater is one of the extraordinary natural resources used in maintaining life on the earth. It has a direct relationship with the population. The population growth, along with climate factor, has raised the demand for freshwater. Hence, there is an ultimate need to search for the location of new wells that can be utilized to fulfil population needs.

Objectives: The primary purpose of research is to carry out an electrical resistivity survey to determine potential aquifer capacity, properties and propose the location of the new wells in sector G-14/3, Islamabad.

Methods: Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) was used with the Schlumberger configuration. ABEM Terameter SAS4000 was employed to perform 2D geoelectrical resistivity imaging surveys to obtain resistivity values. IX1D software was utilized for the data interpretation and the development of different geological layers.

Results: Results from the VES models shows that the subsurface is divided into different lithological layers. The depth and thickness of these layers vary due to tectonic activities and depositional environments. Clay is the dominant lithology along with sandy gravel layers. The Dar-Zarrouk parameters result specifies that VES-3 and VES-5 have an excellent protective capacity, moderate transmissivity, and a high coefficient of anisotropy

Conclusions: Due to variations in lithology and thickness, a single layer cannot be described as an aquifer. At depth >35 meters, only two points, i.e., VES-3 and VES- 5, are marked as the zone of probable exploitable well locations. The higher values of the anisotropy coefficient indicate that the groundwater is highly polluted.

Land use/land cover change detection and prediction using the CA-Markov model: A case study of Quetta city, Pakistan

Zubair Khan, Ahmed Saeed, Mohammad Haroon Bazai

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2 (2), 164-182.
First Published: 31 Dec 2020


Background: Land use/land cover changes are the results of rapid urban growth and human activities. The anthropological activities, such as growth in population, rapid urbanization, and fast economic advancement, have modified the surface of the earth, which causes change at a local level and worldwide. Therefore, LULC monitoring and modelling are important for sustainable urban development.

Objectives: The current study aims to detect changes in land use/ land cover from 1998-2018 and to predict changes for the year 2028 using the integrated Cellular Automata-Markov model in Quetta city, Pakistan.

Methods: Three temporal satellite imageries were used for the detection of changes during 1998, 2008, and 2018. Maximum Likelihood Classification techniques were used for classification and change detection, whereas, Cellular Automata-Markov integrated model was used for the prediction of 2028. The standard kappa coefficient was used for assessing the validity of the model.

Results: The result shows an increase (27.1km2) in the built-up area, while a decrease (15.4 km2) in open spaces and 11.7 Km2 in green areas from 1998 to 2018. Moreover, the Prediction result shows that the green area and open spaces would likely be decreased (2.7 km2) and 3.86 km2 from 2018 to 2028 respectively, whereas a slight increase (6.56 km2) in built-up is expected from 2018 to 2028.

Conclusions: This study concluded that Quetta city had witnessed LULC changes over the last 20 years. The current study revealed that the condition of green areas and open spaces are much precarious due to the rapid urbanization in the city. Whereas, the alarming increase in the built-up area creates many complications for the current and future planning process. The use of GIS and RS can be used effectively for detecting and predicting LULC changes. The present study can be used as a direction for other studies using projected LULC models.

Socioeconomic conditions of rural women and their participation in livestock management activities in Chiniot District of the Punjab, Pakistan

Asad Ali Khan, Kinza Khan and Muhammad Ejaz Hussain

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2 (2), 183-199.
First Published: 31 Dec 2020


Background: Livestock raising is an essential part of the agro-based rural economy of Chiniot District. The role of women in different activities relating to livestock management is crucial and needs to be recognized properly. Improvements in this sector by proper attention on women’s participation can play a vital part in the progress and prosperity of the area.

Objectives: The basic objectives of the study were to assess the socio-economic conditions of rural women of Chiniot district and the extent of their participation in livestock management activities

Methods: The study is primarily based on firsthand data, collected from randomly selected 15 villages, five from each of the three tehsils of the district. In total 600 women, 40 from each village were randomly selected and interviewed. For field survey, a comprehensive questionnaire containing over 30 queries about the women’s socioeconomic conditions and participation in 15 livestock management activities was used. The data was processed to draw results using quantitative techniques and computer software’s SPSS-25 and ArcGIS-10.7.

Results: Results show that most of the women in the study area are illiterate. Most of them are married, living in joint families having limited income and average socioeconomic conditions. Agriculture and livestock are their main occupations. They spend maximum time in managing livestock and support their families. They play dominating role in milk processing, making and storing of dung-cakes, feeding, watering and bathing animals, caring diseased animals and new born babies, fodder cutting and collection, cleaning animal sheds, collection of manure Conclusions: The study concluded that socioeconomic conditions of the rural women of Chiniot district are average and their contribution in livestock management activities is incredibly high and crucial. For the improvement of this important sub-sector of the economy and its contributing women, special attention of the concerned departments and stakeholders is direly needed.

Job satisfaction, organizational commitment and other factors’ impact on turnover intention of private employees: An empirical evidence from education sector of Pakistan

Yamna Waqas Khan, Masood Hassan, Tariq Jalees and Muhammad AsadUllah

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2 (2), 200-215.
First Published: 31 Dec 2020


Background: Turnover intention of employees is related to the level of dissatisfaction that they experience due to various reasons and may lead to resignation and leaving of the organization which may negatively impact the company due to decreased productivity, low profitability, financial loss and lower market rating of the organization Ensuring.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to find out how the constructs; Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, HR policies & Organizational Growth impact the turnover intention of employees in Education sector of Pakistani market.

Methods: Pre-established constructs have been used with reliabilities and distributed among 160 respondents who are currently employed in Pakistan. The construct used is tested through Descriptive Analysis. Further the output related to the impact of these factors has been analyzed through Simple Linear Regression Analysis.

Results: The findings revealed that job satisfaction level, organizational commitment, HR Policies, and organizational growth have a significant impact on the turnover intention of employees. F-test (goodness-of-Fit test) has been used to test the significance of the hypotheses, used in this study.

Conclusions: This study can be continued by adding other variables to understand the intention of employees for turnover in Pakistan.

       Journal of Geography and Social Sciences