Volumes and Issues


Volume 2, Issue 1

Time-space distribution analysis of Direct Solar Radiation in Nigeria
Olumide David Onafeso

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2(1), 1-17.

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Background: The paper utilizes data obtained from geostationary satellite platform to describe the seasonal and spatial distribution of direct solar radiation over Nigeria.
Objectives: The study aim to examine the geographical nature of direct solar radiation over Nigeria.
Methods: All data was collected from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System – Version 1 (GEOS-1) Multiyear Assimilation Time series Data on the NOAA 17 satellite.
Results: Results show that direct solar radiation (DSR) increases in value from the Atlantic coast northwards, and is generally lower during the rainy season than the dry season. The northward increase was found to be almost parallel with lines of latitude although the contour lines are slightly skewed to a West-North-West to East-South-East orientation. Bivariate regression models show a direct relationship between direct solar radiation and latitude; clearness index; and average elevation above sea level, whereas an inverse relationship is shown with daily cloud amount; average daily solar angle; and average daily relative humidity.
Conclusions: Spatial distribution of daily direct solar radiation is closely related to latitude. This understanding is useful for solar energy policy development in Nigeria.

Differences and similarities between Pakistani and British construction contracting firms internationalization: application of REM Model
Ahsen Maqsoom, Hassan Ashraf, Muhammad Zeeshan ul Hassan Khan, Imran Arif and Muhammad Umer

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2(1).18-30.

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Background: Various local construction firms are expanding their business to overseas. Developed countries firms are considered more advance in their internationalization process. The direct comparison between the internationalization of emerging and developed countries firms remains an under-researched area.
Objectives: Using an integrated theoretical approach, this paper examines the differences and similarities in the internationalization of construction contracting firms (CCFs) from emerging and developed countries taking a comparative study of Pakistani and British experience.
Methods: The data were collected through postal questionnaire survey. A comparative analysis of the data was done for CCFs having significant involvement in foreign markets originating from Pakistan and Britain.
Results: The main external motive for Pakistani CCFs is the competitive pressure in home market whereas British CCFs have good proximity to their clients and suppliers. The main internal motives for both Pakistani and British CCFs are expansion of the business network of firm and availability of skilled labor. The main barriers faced by Pakistani and British CCFs in foreign markets are inaccessible market information and high start-up cost. The findings of the study show that British CCFs have more developed and elaborated formal networks than Pakistani CCFs. Whereas, Pakistani CCFs are more inclined towards the geographical closeness of the host markets. In terms of operational modes, British CCFs are seen at more advanced development stage than Pakistani CCFs.
Conclusions: The findings show that case firms provide empirical support to various theories; however, the explanatory power of Stage theory is limited in addressing the internationalization of British CCFs.

Assessment of urban sprawl and land use change dynamics using GIS and remote sensing in Metropolitan Corporation Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan
Muhammad Haroon Bazai, Sanaullah Panezai

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2(1), 31-50.

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Background: Urban sprawl is a quite complexed phenomenon with several environmental and social implications. Therefore, its assessment, analysis and, modelling are imperative for effective urban planning.
The current study aims at assessing the urban sprawl and spatio-temporal LULC changes in Metropolitan Corporation Quetta – capital of Balochistan and the 10th most populous city of Pakistan through GIS and remote sensing data during the period of 1999 to 2019.
Methods: Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 5, and Landsat 8 OLI for the years 1999, 2009, and 2019 along with Shannon’s entropy model integration with GIS were used to assess land use land cover (LULC) changes and spatial dispersion and compactness of urban sprawl.
Results: Results show that the built-up area is highly increased (52.33%) from 105.14 km2 to 160.17 Km2 and massive loss (59.38%) has occurred in vegetation cover from 74.31 Km2 (1999) to 30.18 Km2 (2009). Moreover, built-up area is increased drastically (99.89 Km2 , 95%) and open areas are lost by (52.99 Km2 , 34% from 1999 to 2019. The overall relative Shannon’s entropy values for the years 1999, 2009 and 2019 are 0.919, 0.940, and 0.957 respectively, which are closest to the upper limit 1, thus, indicates the spatial dispersion within the study area during the study period.
Conclusions: The use of geospatial technologies for assessing and monitoring the pace of urban sprawl and LULC change dynamics in Quetta city may assist to manage and control the unplanned and haphazard urban growth and sprawl in the city. Moreover, a comprehensive Master Plan of Quetta city is the need of the today. Besides this, effective coordination among the planning and development departments is direly needed. Further research can be done on the use of GIS and remote sensing for future prediction of changes in urban sprawl and LULC.

Impact of structural adjustment program on business cycles in Pakistan: a time-series analysis
Niaz Ali, Muhammad Tariq, Samina Kousar

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2(1), 51-62.

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Background: Understanding of business cycles is necessary for the policymakers because it has important bearings on the wellbeing of the society. In spite of vital importance of business cycles, previously no studies emphasis over measuring Structural Adjustment Program’s (SAP) effect on statistical characteristics of business cycles i.e. persistence, co-movement and volatility for Pakistan.
Objectives: The primary objective of our study is to quantify the impact of SAP on business cycles for Pakistan economy by using time series data from 1974-2016.
Methods: The selected variables has been divided into three groups of variables specifically GDP’s expenditure components, real variables, and nominal variables. In this study, whole time period is distributed in two sub periods i.e. 1974-1988 and 1989-2016. Hodrick and Prescott filter has been used for the extraction of cyclical component from the time series while for measuring the volatility, persistence and co-movements of the selected variables, standard deviation, correlation coefficient and first order correlation coefficient has been used respectively.
Results: Results of the study reveals that volatility of almost all the selected macroeconomic variables has increased after the implementation of SAP. Volatility of GDP, reference variable, has increased from 1.31 to 1.34. Similarly, terms of trade was found the most volatile series amongst all the variables during post-SAP period, with volatility of 4.25.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that SAP implemented during the period of 1988 adversely affected the economy and has not contributed in stabilizing and structuring the economy rather it exaggerated the volatility and economic fluctuations in Pakistan. Government of Pakistan and policymakers should continue to implement sound fiscal and monetary policies to reduce government budgetary deficit, as this decrease would release resources to develop physical as well as financial infrastructures to be capable to promote stability at macro level.

Drinking suitability assessment of treated and untreated ground water used in Bahawalpur City of Pakistan
Asad Ali Khan, Kinza Khan, Sana Arshad and Waqar Arshad

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2(1), 63-77.

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Background: Availability and supply of clean drinking water is essential for healthiness of the people. Bahawalpur is amongst the rapidly growing cities of Pakistan. Underground water table is declining and contamination in water is increasing over time. The city is dependent upon ground water, whereas the availability of safe drinking water is becoming a major challenge for both government and city dwellers.
Objectives: The basic objectives of the study were to provide a precise assessment of the drinking suitability of treated and untreated ground water used in Bahawalpur city and to point out appropriate drinking water areas.
Methods: Drinking water samples were obtained from 26 water filtration plants installed by the government in Bahawalpur City of Punjab Province. At the same time, samples of un-filtered ground water were also collected from the supply sources of filtration plants and houses located nearest to the filtration plants. The collected samples were tested from the labs of Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources and Public Health Engineering Department.
Results: Results show that assessed parameters of only 7.7% samples of unfiltered ground water fall within permissible limits for drinking and 92.3% samples deviate from WHO standards. Results were compared with the international standards for drinking water suitability set by WHO. Thus, unfiltered ground water of most of the areas of Bahawalpur City is unhealthy and not suitable for drinking. Whilst the assessed parameters of 65.4% of the samples of filtered ground water fall within the permissible limits of WHO and are found suitable to be used for drinking purpose.
Conclusions: This study concluded that the use of untreated ground water in Bahawalpur City is un-healthy. Thus, more filtration plants are required to be installed and properly managed to provide safe drinking water to the masses.

Identifying coverage bottlenecks in the Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Care Services in Pangur District Pakistan
Sumera Naseem, Sanaullah Panezai, Shahab E Saqib

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2020, 2(1), 78-92.

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Background: Ensuring access to Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) services is of great importance for the life of pregnant women and newborns.
Objectives: This study is aimed to identify coverage bottlenecks in MNCH services at PHC facilities in Panjgur District, Balochistan province, Pakistan.
Methods: Tanahashi Model of Health Services with six coverage stages was used for identifying bottlenecks in MNCH services. Through two-stage sampling, the data were collected from 262 married women of reproductive age 15-49 in the catchment areas of eight selected PHC facilities. Descriptive statistics were used to measure the coverage bottlenecks.
Results: The findings indicated that almost two-third (64.9%) of women were 20-34 years old. Out of the total, more than half (58%) were housewives and 34% were illiterate. Two-fifth of respondents belonged to the lower-middle income group. The findings of this study indicated major coverage bottlenecks in the availability, acceptability, contact and effective coverage. For availability coverage, the unavailability of lady medical officers, essential medicine, and delivery services were the major bottlenecks. In the case of acceptability coverage, seeking
permission to access MNCH services and non-responsiveness of staff were important bottlenecks. Similarly, major bottlenecks were also found in the contact coverage. This study also confirmed bottlenecks in effective coverage: insufficient general check-up for MNCH services, shortage of human resource, insufficient laboratory services, almost non-existing delivery services, lack of health education and less service timing of PHC facilities.
Conclusions: The poorly managed MNCH services in Panjgur District have adverse implications for the life of pregnant women and newborns. Integrated actions are needed for revamping the MNCH services delivery strategies at district level and ensuring availability of skilled birth attendants, particularly the lady medical officers, provision of essential medicines, improving laboratories at PHC facilities, taking serious initiatives for ensuring delivery services at the PHC facilities.

2019, Volume 1, Issue 1

Farmers’ coping and adaptive strategies towards drought in Pishin District, Balochistan
Muhammad Ashraf

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 1-16.
First Published: 31 December 2019

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Background: Balochistan province is prone to droughts and had been severely impacted during the drought from 1998-2002. Orchard and livestock farming are the main sources of earning livelihoods of the people.
Objectives: The objective of this study is to understand farmers’ coping and adaptive mechanism towards drought hazard.
Methods: The study is primarily based on primary data collected through a structured questionnaire from 215 households. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to assess the coping and adaptive strategies being practiced by the farmers.
Results: The study results demonstrate that during recent long dry period, farmers have shown considerable strength in handling adverse effect of drought on their agricultural practices. A number of various adaptation initiatives have been employed at both on-farm and off-farm utilizing their indigenous methods under the regional conditions to minimize their exposure to drought hazards. These techniques involve crop diversification and mixed cropping, water management that include high span of watering and decreased in area; digging tube wells; water channel constructions/cemented pond for water storage; buying water; use pipe and drip/bubbler system for watering; divides the garden and use more soil around the tree; extra pruning of trees branches; and cutting down some trees for purpose of raising survival of fruit bearing trees; agricultural inputs adjustments, seeking off-farm employment, assets depletion, consumption smoothing, borrowing, and migrating to other places for alternative sources of income.
Conclusions: Farmers adapted number of ex-ant and ex-post coping/adaptive strategies to deal with drought hazard. However, investigation of the strategies used by the farmers indicates that most of the coping and adaptive strategies implemented by them in the study area are more reactive rather than more proactive, autonomous rather than well planned and the current adaptive capacity of the farmers is still inadequate to cope with the future challenges of drought.

An empirical analysis of education, earning and household expenditure financing: the case of Swabi District
Waseem Sajjad, Shahab E. Saqib, Mazhar Ali and Motawali Khan

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 17-29.
First Published: 31 December 2019

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Background: Education is considered as the most important tool to boost economic growth and human development. It has been established in the literature that higher level of education leads to higher development levels.
Objectives: The main objective of our research is to investigate the Mincer and Becker earning function. This function is the study of the effects of investment in schooling and on-the-job training on the level, pattern, and interpersonal distribution of life cycle earnings associated with the pioneering work on human capital. Therefore, this theatrical function is empirically tested in the context of Swabi District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Methods: A cross-sectional design was adopted to conduct this study. A sample of 96 individuals were interviewed through a standardized questionnaire from Razzer Tehsil, Swabi District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to specify the sample size. Simple and multiple regression models were used to explore the association between respondents’ income (dependent variable) and explanatory variables (education, experience and skill).
Results: Findings shows that all the econometrics models were good fit. For instance R2=0.66 for education, 0.72 for experience, 0.82 for kills and 0.62 for overall model. It implies that the variations in the dependent variable (earnings) were significantly explained by independent variables. Education (β= 3886.95, pvalue= 0.005), experience (β= 1181.987, p-value= 0.001) and skill (β= 6681.767, pvalue= 0.096) were significantly affecting income of individuals in separate models. However, skill was noted insignificant in the multiple-regression model.
Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that education, experience and skill are very important determinants of individuals’ income. The federal government should ensure universal access to education. The local government may focus on technical education to produce skilled labor or trained and qualified human resource.

Gender differences in client satisfaction and its relationship with utilization of primary health care services in Pakistan
Sanaullah Panezai, Mokbul Morshed Ahmed and Shahab E Saqib

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 30-43.
First Published: 31 December 2019

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Background: Assessing client satisfaction with services is of prime importance for policymakers and health care managers of the countries with low utilization of primary health care (PHC) services.
Objectives: This study explores gender differences in client satisfaction with PHC services, and association of client satisfaction with the utilization of PHC services at basic health unit (Ahmed et al.) level in Balochistan province, Pakistan.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 302 respondents within the service areas of selected 10 BHUs. The respondents were selected through simple random sampling. Weighted average index, t-tests and multiple regression analyses were used separately for women and men to investigate the differences in effects on their satisfaction levels on utilization of PHC services.
Results: The findings revealed that both men and women were not fully satisfied with the PHC services provided by the BHUs. They were mainly dissatisfied with the availability of medicines for chronic diseases, laboratory services, reproductive care and health education and quality of care. Gender differences were also found in the satisfaction with the convenience of BHU locations, distance to BHUs and services hours. These findings confirm that primary health care services are indeed poorly organized at BHUs.
Conclusions: These findings revealed shortcomings in the performance of primary health system at BHUs level, particularly in Balochistan province Pakistan. Policymakers and health care managers are suggested to revamp the existing service delivery strategies in order to make them more gender-responsive so that it could meet the expectations and PHC needs of both men and women.

Drought perceptions and coping strategies of drought-prone rural households: A case study of Nushki District, Balochistan
Tehmoor Rehman, Sanaullah Panezai, Syed Ainuddin

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 30-43.
First Published: 31 December 2019

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Background: Drought affects every sector of life and repetitive droughts in Balochistan have severally affected livelihoods of people particularly of rural households.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to explore the perceptions of drought and households’ coping strategies in rural areas Nushki District of Balochistan province.
Methods: For this cross-sectional study, the primary data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire from 198 respondents at four union councils of Nushki District. Respondents were selected through simple random sampling. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis, whereas for analyzing qualitative data, content analysis technique was used.
Results: The findings of this study show that lack of rainfall and drying of karezes and water sources were important perceptions of respondents for the incidence of drought. No or less rainfall was perceived to be the arrival of drought in the study area. Furthermore, selling of household assets, low food consumption, seeking alternate sources of income, out migration from the drought prone area were the prominent drought coping strategies of households at local level. Contrary to the literature, diversification in cropping pattern and planting practices were not adopted as coping strategies by rural households at Nushki District.
Conclusions: Nushki District is one of the most affected and drought prone area where occurrence of drought is regular. Mismanagement of water, migration from the rain-fed areas and lack of skills were serious issues. Therefore, government organizations and NGOs should conduct skill development programs for the rural households and farmers should be encouraged to grow drought resistant crops.

Exploring juveniles’ delinquent behavior and associated factors: a cross-country comparison of Pakistan and Thailand
Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah Panezai, Aijaz Ali Wassan, and  Shahab E Saqib

Journal of Geography and Social Sciences, 2019, 1(1), 57-71.
First Published: 31 December 2019

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Background: Studying juvenile delinquency has been of great importance for policymakers, social scientists, as well as public and private social organizations.
Objectives: This study aimed at exploring juveniles’ delinquent behavior and the associated factors in Pakistan and Thailand.
Methods: Quantitative research techniques were used for gathering and analysis of data related to juvenile delinquency. Primary data were collected from juvenile delinquents protection and rehabilitation centers at Bangkok and Karachi through interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 174 respondents were selected for this study through, simple random sampling. The statistical tests: Chi-square test, Pearson correlation, and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regressions were used for analysis.
Results: The results showed significant differences in juveniles’ delinquent behaviors in Pakistan and Thailand. Among Pakistani juveniles, smoking cigarettes, using drugs, damaging property and stealing money from family, whereas, smoking cigarettes, having sexual relations, skipping classes and gang fights were the leading delinquent behaviors among Thai juveniles. For Pakistani juveniles, defection from school, self-control, drug use, lack of daily activities schedule and peer influence were significant factors of delinquency. For Thai juveniles, delinquent behavior was significantly influenced by self-control, family type, lack of daily activities schedule and character of friends.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that socio-economic and environmental factors drive the patterns and causes of delinquency, therefore, they may be given importance in combating delinquency. Policymakers, law enforcement agencies and parents are suggested to adopt the context-specific strategies for reducing delinquency among juveniles keeping in view the local socio-economic and cultural perspectives. Policymakers should take serious initiatives to control school dropouts and drug use among juveniles.